DVD: Gone with the Wind – (1939)

DVD: Gone with the Wind - (1939) Genre: Drama, Romance, War, Release Date: 2009-11-17 Duration: 238 Min ...

DVD: Gone with the Wind – (1939)

DVD: Gone with the Wind - (1939)
Genre: Drama, Romance, War,
Release Date: 2009-11-17
Duration: 238 Min

  • Victor Fleming

The setting is the American state of Georgia just before, during and after the U.S. Civil War.

Opening in April 1861, Gerald O’Hara (Thomas Mitchell), a self-made man of Irish origin, has become rich from his cotton plantation named Tara. Scarlett O’Hara (Vivien Leigh) is his exceptionally pretty, and exceptionally headstrong, 16-year-old daughter. Scarlett likes having fun and flirting, for example with the twins Brent and Stuart Carleton (George Reeves and Fred Crane). They are anticipating the next ball, while also speculating about the likelihood of war between the southern Confederacy and the North, although Scarlett finds the latter topic boring and refuses to talk about it.

Neighbor John Wilkes (Howard C. Hickman) gives a barbecue party at the Twelve Oaks plantation. Scarlett longs for Wilkes’ son Ashley Wilkes (Leslie Howard), a lanky, soft-spoken young man of refined bearing, whom she sees as the love of her life. At the party, Scarlett flirts with many boys, to the dismay of her sisters Suellen (Evelyn Keyes) and Carren (Ann Rutherford). While the younger women take a mid-afternoon nap, the men meet for cigars and brandy and discuss how the South will win the war. Another guest, Rhett Butler (Clark Gable), a handsome, if rather rough-hewn, adventurer from Charleston, South Carolina, scoffs at the notion that the South will win the war simply through the exhibition of pride; the North is industrially superior to the South and therefore can produce more of the tools of war much more quickly. Young Charles Hamilton (Rand Brooks) is offended by Rhett’s opinion and openly tells him so, and even suggests a duel. Rhett, realizing he’s a much better shooter than Charles and a discussion like that is not worth somebody’s life, leaves the meeting. Charles brands Rhett a coward, but Ashley says that Rhett would have killed him in the duel.

Scarlett slips away from the nap room to talk to Ashley. She declares her love to him. However, Ashley declares his intention to marry his cousin Melanie Hamilton (Olivia de Havilland). The waifish Melanie can’t compete with Scarlett in looks, but is admired by all for her kindheartedness and altruism. In her anger, Scarlett throws a vase at the wall. Rhett Butler suddenly pops up from the couch where he’d been resting and jokingly asks if the war has just begun. Scarlett is outraged and defends Ashley when Rhett mocks him.

The start of the war is announced and all the young gentlemen rush to enlist. Charles Hamilton (Melanie’s younger brother) is thought to be planning to marry Ashley’s sister India Wilkes (Alicia Rhett), but after Scarlett flirts with him, he asks Scarlett to marry him. Furious because Ashley has rejected her, Scarlett agrees. They marry quickly and Charles leaves for the front immediately. Scarlett offers herself to Ashley, but he just gives her a cold kiss on the cheek. A few months later, news comes of Charles’s death from an illness at the front.

Scarlett’s mother Ellen (Barbara O’Neil) wants to cheer up the young widow and suggests that she go to Atlanta to live with Melanie and Aunt Pittypat (Laura Hope Crews). She agrees as she realizes Atlanta might mean a chance to see Ashley. In Atlanta, there is a fundraising ball for the army, where Scarlett, as a recent widow, is not supposed to enjoy herself. She dances surreptitiously behind the counter of her charity stall. Rhett Butler is in attendance. Butler is well-known as an arms smuggler who aids the Southern cause, even though he has a cynical attitude towards the war’s aims and is in the arms business mainly to make money. He was responsible for getting the ball decorations through the blockade. Melanie offers her wedding ring as a war contribution and Scarlett feels obliged to follow suit, although Rhett sarcastically praises Scarlett’s generosity. An auction is held for the men to bid on a dance with the girl of their choosing. Rhett is the winner, and he chooses Scarlett, causing consternation in the crowd since Scarlett is a widow and wearing a black mourning dress. While dancing, Rhett tells Scarlett that someday he wants to hear her say that she loves him. She proclaims confidently that this will never happen as long as she lives.

Christmas of 1861 arrives, and Ashley returns home for a furlough. Scarlett is obviously still in love with Ashley, but Melanie refuses to believe it. Melanie and Ashley close the bedroom door on a sad-eyed Scarlett. Soon, it’s Ashley’s departure day. Finally managing to get Ashley alone, Scarlett gives him a Christmas present and confesses with tears in her eyes that she married Charles only to hurt him. Ashley makes Scarlett promise to take care of Melanie. He returns to the front, believing that the war will be lost.

The war drags on and, flashing forward to 1864, the situation in the Deep South worsens. Food is scarce. All families have lost loved ones in battles in Virginia and Tennessee. Melanie is pregnant with Ashley’s child, and Scarlett, the only capable person at Aunt Pittypat’s, has to take care of her. Scarlett is also a volunteer nurse, a role she hates but feels pressured to perform. A dying soldier (Cliff Edwards) reminisces about his brother Jeff. Scarlett flees the hospital in desperation after hearing the agonizing cries of a wounded Confederate soldier (Eric Lindon) who is having a leg amputated without anesthetic. The useless Aunt Pittypat leaves the city because the noise of the artillery bombs is getting to her nerves. Scarlett can’t leave because of Melanie’s condition; she is weak and complications may arise during childbirth. Scarlett counts on Dr. Meade (Harry Davenport) to attend Melanie’s labor, but when the time arrives he can’t leave the train station where hundreds of Confederate soldiers are wounded or dying. Scarlett and the uneducated house slave Prissy (Butterfly McQueen) must tend to the birth. Prissy, who had claimed to know everything about childbirth, confesses she doesn’t know anything about it, to Scarlett’s anger. Melanie’s labour is long and complicated and eventually a son (Ricky Holt) is born, leaving Melanie very weak.

Scarlett sends Prissy in search of Rhett. He is enjoying himself at the brothel run by Belle Watling (Ona Munson). Rhett mocks Prissy, but finally decides to help Scarlett and Melanie. Scarlett insists on returning home to Tara, where she thinks they all will be safe. Rhett steals a horse and a derelict cart. Melanie and her baby, Scarlett, Prissy and Rhett, drive out through Atlanta’s burning buildings. Rhett leaves them on the road to Tara. He is going to enlist in the Confederate army because he only believes in lost causes “when they are really lost.” Before leaving he proclaims that he has loved Scarlett more than he has ever loved any woman. He kisses her passionately and she repays him with a slap saying “Everybody was right about you. You’re no gentleman”. He rides off laughing. When he is gone, Scarlett breaks down in tears.

Scarlett goes on to Tara. The journey is long, cold and wet. They must hide from the Northern troops and travel mainly at night. They find a stray cow and use it to feed the baby, as Melanie is not able to lactate. They pass through the Wilkes’ plantation, which is completely destroyed by fire as are most of other plantations. Melanie tries to stand up, but falls down again when she sees the half-burned crosses marking the graves of her family. The journey goes on and the horse dies just as they arrive at Tara. Lit by the weak moonlight, they gaze at proud Tara, still standing standing, but only because the Northern troops used it as a headquarters.

Conditions at Tara are terrible, as related by the house servants Mammy (Hattie McDaniel) and Pork (Oscar Polk). Scarlett’s mother has died from the flu, her father has gone mad, there are no farm animals and very little food because it was taken by the Northern troops. Many slaves have ran away while others were conscripted into the Union Army, there is no money, and the harvest has been lost. Scarlett goes out to clear her thoughts. She feeds on some raw vegetables but throws up. She resolves not give up, saying “As God is my witness, I’ll never be hungry again!”


The war enters its final stages as General Sherman marches his Northern Army through Georgia, destroying everything in their path. Scarlett forces herself to make the best of it and work the land. Over the next few months, little by little, they repair Tara. Scarlett makes her sisters work the fields, which they do grudgingly. Melanie can’t work because of her weakness from her still recent birth. One day, a renegade Union soldier (Paul Hurst) enters the house in search of valuables. He threatens Scarlett, and she shoots him dead with an old pistol at close range. Her father and sisters are told by Melanie that she was cleaning the weapon and that it went off. Only Melanie knows the truth. She gives her nightdress to wrap the body up, and they secretly cart it off for burial in the back yard. Scarlett and Melanie discover that the Union deserter had a significant of legitimate cash as well as gold and silver coins and other items which they take and hope to use.

Flashing forward some months to the spring of 1865, the war is finally over with news of the surrender of General Lee in Virginia. Over the next several months, Confederate soldiers start to return to their homes around the area. One of the returning soldiers is a local man named Frank Kennedy (Carrol Nye), who has long been in love with Suellen O’Hara. He asks Scarlett’s permission to propose to her sister. Passing soldiers are given food at Tara, mainly at the behest of Melanie. One of them, (Phillip Trent) tells Melanie that her husband is still alive but in a Yankee prison camp. Finally, the war-weary Ashley appears. Melanie runs to embrace him, but Mammy won’t let Scarlett do the same, as Scarlett has no rights over him. Ashley will stay at Tara with Melanie and his son.

As the Reconstruction period begins, “carpetbaggers” from the North impose high taxes on plantations. Scarlett is terrified that she will lose her beloved Tara. She searches for comfort from the dispirited Ashley, although Mammy doesn’t believe that asking him will solve anything. In the ensuing conversation, Scarlett begs Ashley to leave everything behind and go away with her to Mexico. He embraces her and they share a forbidden kiss. He admits that he loves her and admires her courage, but because of his honor he can’t leave Melanie and the baby behind. Ashley reminds Scarlett that she still has Tara which she loves more than him; and he thrusts the red dirt of Tara into her hand. Ashley talks about the lost civilization of the South, and tells Scarlett that he will move his family to New York City to work in a bank. Scarlett wants to hold onto the love of her life, so she throws a tantrum and insists that Ashley stay to help Scarlett. Melanie naively takes Scarlett’s side, and a defeated-looking Ashley gives in.

Tara’s former overseer Jonas Wilkerson (Victor Jory), who has grown prosperous by collaborating with the carpetbaggers, offers to buy Tara and has driven the taxes on the plantation to 0. Scarlett humiliates him and refuses to acquiesce. She throws a clump of the red-clay earth to his face. While Wilkerson and his wife leave, Scarlett’s feeble-minded father pursues them on a horse, intending to upbraid him. The horse falls while attempting to jump over a fence, and O’Hara is killed in the fall.

Scarlett decides to visit Rhett Butler, who now holds the rank of Captain, to ask him for the money she needs. He is being held in jail in Atlanta by Union forces, who are threatening him with hanging in the hope of obtaining Confederate gold that Rhett has hidden. (Conditions aren’t too bad, though; he drinks and gambles with the Yankees, and receives female visitors in his cell). Scarlett dresses up for the occasion in a gown sewn from the green-colored curtains of Tara. The loyal Mammy accompanies Scarlett, always trying to keep her charge out of trouble. Scarlett, admitted to Rhett’s cell, assumes a nonchalant air and tries to present herself as elegant and rich. Rhett reveals her deception when he points out Scarlett’s rough-skinned hands from working in the fields. Despite her anger, she begs him for the money, and even offers to be his mistress. Rhett says he has nothing to give her and dismisses her. On the way out, Scarlett sees Belle Watling arriving for a visit. Scarlett observes that Belle would know how to get the money and that she dresses well.

Walking through the town, Scarlett and Mammy come across Frank Kennedy. He is a newly-successful businessman, selling the hardware and wood by which the city is being rebuilt. Frank is saving money to marry Suellen and bring her to the city. Scarlett sees her opportunity; she tells Frank that Suellen has decided to marry another man, and proceeds to play the coquette with Frank, despite Mammy’s disapproving looks. Back at Tara, Suellen is heartbroken, having just learned that Scarlett has hastily married Frank, and that Frank has paid off Tara’s tax debts. When Scarlett arrives as a newlywed, she appears as gloomy as if she were a widow. Melanie tries to calm Suellen down, saying that Scarlett did what she thought she needed to do. Suellen is frantic because her sister has been married twice, while she seems destined to be a spinster.

Over the next year in 1866, Frank’s and Ashley’s hardware and lumber store flourishes under Scarlett’s management. She refuses credit to her poor neighbors and makes lucrative deals with northern businessmen. They expand by buying a sawmill, and Tara starts to regain part of its former splendor. Scarlett hires hungry convicts, who are exploited by a cruel overseer (John Wray). One day, she comes across Captain Rhett Butler, who is now free and very wealthy. He laughs, saying that she could have married him and become rich if she had waited. She brushes him off and leaves alone for the sawmill. Rhett points out that the shantytown on the way to the sawmill is full of dangerous criminals and deserters, but Scarlett shows him that she carries a gun.

On the way to the sawmill, two men attack Scarlett from behind and overpower her before she can use her gun. Scarlett faints. They are on the verge of raping her when Big Sam (Everett Brown), a former slave at Tara, saves her. News of the events spreads quickly through the town. That evening, Frank drops Scarlett and Mammy at the Wilkes’ home while he and Ashley go out to a “political meeting.” The women sense that something is afoot, and Melanie reads aloud from ‘David Copperfield’ in an attempt to relieve the tension. Rhett appears and tells the women that the men have formed a vigilante group to punish the attackers. Rhett says that the Union army has been tipped off and that the men are in danger. Melanie tells Rhett where the men are meeting as she considers him trustworthy (despite Scarlett’s advice to the contrary). Rhett says he will do what he can.

Several hours later Rhett appears with Ashley and Dr. Meade, with a squad of Union soldiers right behind them. Rhett, Dr. Meade and Ashley pretend to be drunk. Rhett tells the Yankee captain (Ward Bond) that they have spent the evening at the establishment of Belle Watling, who will confirm their story. The women are shocked and embarrassed, but the captain accepts this explanation and departs. Rhett then reveals that there was a skirmish at the shantytown, that Ashley is wounded in his left shoulder after being shot, and that the two thugs who attacked Scarlett are dead, along with several others. Scarlett is frantic over Ashley’s condition, but neglects to inquire what happened to her husband. Rhett finally mentions that Frank Kennedy was killed. Another day, Melanie meets Belle Watling and thanks her for helping to save Ashley. Belle cautions Melanie not to speak to her in public as it would damage Melanie’s reputation. Melanie says that she would be proud to greet Belle in public.

A few days later, Rhett visits Scarlett, again a widow. He realizes that she has been drinking heavily, despite her attempts to cover up the smell with cologne. Scarlett tells Rhett that she will never love him because she’s in love with another man, but she will marry Rhett because of his money. Rhe


Clark Gable

Vivien Leigh

Thomas Mitchell

Barbara O’Neil


3 responses to “DVD: Gone with the Wind – (1939)”

  1. Benjamin J Burgraff says:
    484 of 514 people found the following review helpful:
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    Near-Perfect Edition of Hollywood Classic…, December 22, 2004
    Benjamin J Burgraff (Las Vegas) – (TOP 500 REVIEWER)

    Amazon Verified Purchase(What’s this?)
    This review is from: Gone with the Wind (Four-Disc Collector’s Edition) (DVD)

    It seems like a ‘new, improved’ edition of “Gone With the Wind” has appeared every couple of years, offering the ‘ultimate’ in picture and sound reproduction, and extras. It can become expensive keeping up, and frustrating (much like buying a classic Disney DVD, when you know a more complete “Special Edition” will soon render your “First Time on Video” copy obsolete), but the new GWTW Four-Disc Collector’s Edition most assuredly deserves a place in your collection. First off, the picture and sound quality is astonishing. Warner’s Ultra-Resolution process, which ‘locks’ the three Technicolor strips into exact alignment, provides a clarity and ‘crispness’ to the images that even the 1939 original print couldn’t achieve. You’ll honestly believe your TV is picking up HD, whether you’re HD-ready, or not! This carries over to the Dolby Digital-remastered sound, as well. All of the tell-tale hiss and scratchiness of the opening credit title music, still discernable in the last upgrade, is gone, replaced by a richness of tone that will give your home theater a good workout. (Listen to the brass in this sequence, and you’ll notice what I’m talking about…) The biggest selling point of this edition is, of course, the two discs of additional features offered, and these are, in general, superb. Beginning with the excellent “Making of a Legend” (narrated by Christopher Plummer), Disc Three offers fascinating overviews about the film, the amazing restoration, footage from the 1939 Premiere (and the bittersweet 1961 Civil War Centennial reunion of Selznick, Leigh, and de Havilland), glimpses of Gable and Leigh with dubbed voices for the foreign-language versions, the international Prologue (tacked on to explain the Civil War to foreign audiences), and a 1940 MGM documentary on the “Old South” (directed by Fred Zinneman) memorable today for it’s simplistic view of the time, and stereotypical portrayal of blacks. Disc Four is a mixed bag; the long-awaited reminiscences of Olivia de Havilland are more chatty than informative (with the 90-year-old actress more interested in discussing her wardrobe than on-set tension…although a prank she pulled on Gable is amusing), and the Clark Gable Profile is superficial (A&E’s biography of ‘The King’ is far superior). Things improve, however, with the insightful, sympathetic TCM biography of Vivien Leigh (hosted by Jessica Lange), and a WONDERFUL section devoted to brief bios of many of the GWTW supporting cast, narrated, again, by Christopher Plummer (although I wish the filmmakers would have included bios for Ward Bond, Victor Jory, Fred Crane, and George ‘Superman’ Reeves). All in all, the GWTW Four-Disc Collector’s Edition isn’t perfect, but offers so much terrific material that it is CERTAINLY the one to own!

  2. William Sommerwerck "grizzled geezer" says:
    206 of 219 people found the following review helpful:
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    “And you, miss, are no lady!”, November 17, 2009
    William Sommerwerck “grizzled geezer” (Renton, WA USA) – (REAL NAME)

    This review is from: Gone with the Wind (70th Anniversary Ultimate Collector’s Edition) [Blu-ray] (Blu-ray)

    As with the “Wizard of OZ” BD set, the GWTW set is elaborated — and made “spendier” — with the addition of material that might not be absolutely necessary for one’s enjoyment. The box is covered in red velvet flocking (green would have been more appropriate and amusing — qv, Carol Burnett). There’s a CD “sampler” of Max Steiner’s score, running a measly 45 minutes. Given that Max took excessive scoring to the max (Bette Davis had some pointedly unkind things to say about it), a “sampler” could have filled two CDs, and still not have exhausted the music (though the music might exhaust you). * As with “OZ”, there’s a 52-page hard-backed book that’s largely content-free, plus reproductions of some of the watercolor set-design paintings (in their own little envelope), and various memoranda sent to and from David O. Selznick. I was expecting a reproduction of Gerald O’Hara’s pocket watch, but it likely would have been of even poorer quality than the kiddie watch in the “OZ” box. The best bonus is a reproduction of the 25-cent (expensive in 1939) souvenir booklet. It includes pieces by the principals, notably one from Clark Gable telling how badly he wanted to play Rhett Butler and much he enjoyed every minute of making the film. (He didn’t want to appear in “costume” films (having had bad luck in a film about Irish revolutionaries), was afraid to take on a role the public had such definite ideas about, and got along poorly with the first director, George Cukor.) As I write this, I haven’t viewed all the supplemental material on the second disk. (There’s a lot.) The third disk duplicates the “When the Lion Roars” feature included in the “OZ” box — though the package labeling suggests it’s unique to GWTW. GWTW was always unsharp and muddy-looking — until the Ultra Resolution transfer of the original three-strip negatives a few years ago. It was a major improvement, and the DVDs showed the film as it had never been seen. This edition apparently uses a new Ultra Resolution transfer, at twice the resolution (8k versus 4k) of the previous. Some scenes — such as Ashley escorting Melanie to the balcony of Twin Oaks — are breathtaking, far superior to what the DVD offered (and /that/ wasn’t exactly chopped liver). The best Technicolor films, properly transferred, push HD to its limit. What most surprised me, though, was the awareness of how the film’s color balance is adjusted to produce specific effects. Many scenes have an appropriately warm, “burnished” coloration that /does not/ carry over to the scene’s subtle colors. For example, at the fund-raising bazaar, there’s a bottle of pastel-colored candies (which you’ll probably never notice in the SD edition) that retain their correct colors, “unromantized” by the rest of the image’s warmth. Similarly, in the scene outside the hospital where Belle Watling makes a donation, her costume is vividly colored (there’s no question about her profession!), even though everything else is drab. Several sequences are outstanding, particularly the one where Scarlett returns to Aunt Pittypat’s home to tend to Melanie. It’s a model of Technicolor photography, one that any cinematographer would be proud of — as good as anything being done today. In earlier transfers of poorer prints, this sequence is flat and two-dimensional. You can’t see how magnificently lit and photographed it is. At its best, the Technicolor resembles large-format, ultra-sharp Polacolor. That’s a compliment! If you’re fortunate enough to have a large display, you’ll gasp at some of the images. One of the most-startling moments occurs when Scarlett goes to the train station to look for Dr Meade, one of the most-famous scenes in movie history. Hundreds, if not thousands of injured men lie on the ground, waiting for medical attention that will likely never come. There weren’t enough extras, so dummies were used. And for the first time, you can actually /see/ which of the “extras” are dummies! You can probably tell better than the camera operator! In short… The BD edition is a major improvement over the excellent DVD edition. It gives the impression that the movie makers were able to manipulate Technicolor to get specific aesthetic effects. ** And it shows just how /beautifully photographed/ this film is, something even the original Technicolor prints never fully revealed. The DVD probably captured most of this (I no longer have it for comparison), but you’ll never see it in standard definition on a “small” screen. Looking at excerpts in the supplmentary material /not/ taken from the Ultra Resolution transfer is a reminder of just how “messy”-looking the original GWTW was. It no longer is. I’ve never enjoyed watching it so much. It’s becoming apparent that an HD transfer, shown on a big display, is not the best way to watch a movie at home, but the best way to watch a…

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  3. D. Paul Dalton "DPD" says:
    149 of 167 people found the following review helpful:
    5.0 out of 5 stars
    Technical Consideration for “Bewildered in Iowa”, November 30, 2004
    D. Paul Dalton “DPD” (Dallas, TX USA) – (REAL NAME)

    This review is from: Gone with the Wind (Four-Disc Collector’s Edition) (DVD)

    I do hope you’ll return and revise your rating to a ‘5’ once you digest this information: Gone With the Wind was never released in a Widescreen version on DVD because it was never released in a Widescreen version on film. In fact, when it was released (1939), there were NO “Widescreen” movies at all — becaues no one had yet thought about formatting movies in that way. Through the 1940s and into the 1950s, essentially ALL movies were in the 3:4 format that we now consider to be “regular”. My understanding is that those proportions originally were adopted by the film industry to roughly correspond with the proportions of viewable area for the “live” theaters extant when the film industry started. Similarly, when television arrived in the late 40s/early 50s, its screen format was determined by copying the 3:4 screen proportions of films made up to that time. By the mid-1950s, the film industry became concerned about losing its audience to TV, so various WIDESCREEN formats (CinemaScope was one; I think there was another called VistaVision; I can’t remember the others offhand) were conceived by the film industry in the 1950s as a way in which the film industry could distinguish its film products from what could efficiently be shown on television screens. This was the film industry’s attempt to keep audiences coming to theaters to see their movies, rather than just waiting to see movie productions on home televisions; by coming to the theater, the audience could experience something different that what television could offer. Other “ideas” in this effort against TV included attempts to interest audiences in 3D films, as well as enhancing film audio, both by greatly improving sound range and fidelity and later by adding stereo, at a time when TVs had only a single, inexpensive speaker that didn’t sound all that “hot.” In fact, the creation/addition of 5.1 audio (Surround Sound) was yet another film industry effort to distinguish itself from what then was available for use in homes. Anyway, if someone now wants to issue a “Widescreen” version of GWTW, the only way to do it (without distorting the content) would be to cut off the top and/or bottom of every frame all the way through — just think about how THAT would look . . .

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MONEY MARKETS-Futures support view of Fed raising rates in mid-2015

NEW YORK (Frankfurt: HX6.F - news) , June 18 (Reuters) - U.S. short-term interest rates futures ended higher on Wednesday as the latest forecasts among Federal Reserve policymakers supported the view the central bank may increase rates in mid-2015. The rate forecasts coincided with policymakers' decision to further shrink the Fed's monthly purchases of Treasuries and mortgage-backed securities to reduce stimulus to the economy, which policymakers expected to expand more slowly in 2014 due to a contraction in the first quarter. "If the economy continues on its current path, the first rate increase should come in the second or third quarter of 2015," said Mike Cullinane, head of Treasuries trading at D.A. Davidson in St. Petersburg, Florida. Prices on U.S. rates futures for 2014 and 2015 were choppy and ended modestly higher on perceived dovish remarks from Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen during her news conference.